"The structure of modern Russian history: Toward a dynamic model. That war broke out when the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with strong German support, tried to suppress Serbian nationalism, and Russia supported Serbia. [citation needed]. His assassination in late 1916 by a clique of nobles could not restore the Tsar's lost prestige. There were no schools open to girls. Of the elected members, 3 were returned by the "black" clergy (the monks), 3 by the "white" clergy (seculars), 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland. In addition, the 26th article stated that "With the Imperial Russian throne are indivisible the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Principality of Finland". German control of the Baltic Sea and German-Ottoman control of the Black Sea severed Russia from most of its foreign supplies and potential markets. In August 1914, the Russian army invaded Germany's province of East Prussia and occupied a significant portion of Austrian-controlled Galicia in support of the Serbs and their allies – the French and British. [citation needed] According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was already a contemporary Russian word for empire. in. They favored far-reaching reforms, and hoped the landlord class would fade away, while agreeing they should be paid for their land. On the left the Socialist Revolutionaries and Social Democrats wanted to expropriate the landowners, without payment, but debated whether to divide the land up among the peasants, or to put it into collective local ownership. The financial redemption to the landlord was not calculated on the value of the allotments, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs. Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and – so far as one order of tribunal was concerned – the election of judges. [54] Regarding irrationality, Russia avoided the full force of the European Enlightenment, which gave priority to rationalism, preferring the romanticism of an idealized nation state that reflected the beliefs, values and behavior of the distinctive people. Nevertheless, Catherine realized that serfdom must be ended, going so far in her Nakaz ("Instruction") to say that serfs were "just as good as we are" – a comment the nobility received with disgust. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, representing three groups of electors very unequal in number, each of which elects an equal number of delegates to the municipal duma. Recent research by Russian scholars disputes this interpretation. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into World War I on the side of France and the United Kingdom against the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman empires. The military history of the Russian Empire encompasses the history of armed conflict in which the Russian Empire participated. Paper money was issued to pay for expensive wars, thus causing inflation. The throne passed to Alexander III (1881–1894), a reactionary who revived the maxim of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality" of Nicholas I. Further reforms of 1860s included socio-economic reforms to clarify the position of the Russian government in the field of property rights and their protection. The Russian Empire[b] was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The establishment of a judicial system on these principles constituted a major change in the conception of the Russian state, which, by placing the administration of justice outside the sphere of the executive power, ceased to be a despotism. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. He raised academic standards, improved facilities, and opened the admission doors a bit wider. Many peasants took "gratuitous allotments," whose amount was about one-eighth of the normal allotments. The Crown paid the landlord and the peasants had to repay the Crown, for forty-nine years at 6% interest. He taught his imperial pupils to fear freedom of speech and press, as well as disliking democracy, constitutions, and the parliamentary system. [45] On the left, the Socialist Revolutionary Party (SRs) incorporated the Narodnik tradition and advocated the distribution of land among those who actually worked it — the peasants. But the "unlimited autocracy" had given place to a "self-limited autocracy". Each province of the Empire, except Central Asia, returned a certain number of members; added to these were those returned by several large cities. Foreign policy and the Russo-Japanese War, Revolution of 1905 and the First and Second Dumas, https://www.britannica.com/place/Russian-Empire. [21], The retaliation for the revolt made "December Fourteenth" a day long remembered by later revolutionary movements. Thus, between 1772 and 1917 the Jewish population of this territory grew over eight times—an enormous increase, far greater than that of the … [47], Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and further increased the potential for unrest. The Romanovs would be the ruling family for the entire lifespan of the Empire—to ensure that fact, Michael Romanov executed the surviving relatives of the Polish-appointed tsars. It was presided over by a lay procurator, representing the Emperor, and consisted of the three metropolitans of Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Kyiv, the archbishop of Georgia, and a number of bishops sitting in rotation. The Don Oblast was under the direct jurisdiction of the ministry of war; the rest had each a governor and deputy-governor, the latter presiding over the administrative council. The Orthodox hierarchy was suspicious of education – they saw no religious need whatever for literacy. Peter reorganized his government based on the latest political models of the time, moulding Russia into an absolutist state. These allotments were given over to the rural commune, the mir, which was made responsible for the payment of taxes for the allotments. By 1825, the national government operated six universities, forty-eight secondary state schools, and 337 improved primary schools. The legal code known as Russkaya Pravda (Russian Truth) is founded in his reign. Strauss, Johann. [27] The result was the January Uprising, a massive Polish revolt, which was crushed by massive force. [51] The execution of the Romanov family at the hands of Bolsheviks followed in July 1918. The budget allocated 46 percent to the military, 20 percent to government economic activities, 12 percent to administration, and nine percent for the Imperial Court in St. Petersburg. The Russian Empire is the natural and officially recognized successor to the Tsardom of Muscovy. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. European Russia thus embraced 59 governorates and 1 oblast (that of the Don). See main article on Russo-Japanese War The war between Russia and the Japanese Empire broke out on February 8, 1904 with a Japanese attack upon the Russian Far East Fleet stationed at Port Arthur. The empire had its genesis when the Russian nobility sought a new bloodline for its monarchy. A committed Slavophile, Alexander III believed that Russia could be saved from turmoil only by shutting itself off from the subversive influences of Western Europe. Newly discovered Arctic islands became part of the Russian Empire as Russian explorers found them: the New Siberian Islands from the early 18th century; Severnaya Zemlya ("Emperor Nicholas II Land") first mapped and claimed as late as 1913. Prussia remained the dominant force in the nation until the empire’s demise at the end of another war in 1918. He presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna (1815), which ultimately made Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. With his authority destroyed, Nicholas abdicated on 2 March 1917. According to returns published in 1905, based on the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows. Many reforms were promised, but few were actually carried out before 1820 when he turned his attention to foreign affairs and personal religion and ignored reform issues. This period claims the first written evidence about the "Rus" and "Rusah". This status concealed the inefficiency of its government, the isolation of its people, and its economic and social backwardness. Of these 11 Governorates, 17 oblasts and 1 okrug (Sakhalin) belonged to Asian Russia. Exiled Jesuits set up elite boarding schools until their order was expelled in 1815. [77] The Ministry of Education was set up in 1802, and the country was divided into six educational regions. [4][5] The third-largest empire in history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe, Asia, and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in size only by the British and Mongol empires, leaving the empire lasting 196 years. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. While the modern Russian Federation currently controls the Kaliningrad Oblast, which comprised the northern part of East Prussia, this differs from the area captured by the Empire in 1914, though there was some overlap: Gusev (Gumbinnen in German) was the site of the initial Russian victory. They thus tended to ally themselves with the forces of bourgeois liberalism. Russian Empire, historical empire founded on November 2, 1721, when the Russian Senate conferred the title of emperor of all the Russias upon Peter I. Most of the 19th-century growth of the empire came from adding territory in central and eastern Asia, south of Siberia. Russian Empire, historical empire founded on November 2 (October 22, Old Style), 1721, when the Russian Senate conferred the title of emperor (imperator) of all the Russias upon Peter I. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers The Army and the church had its own training programs, narrowly focused on their particular needs. Nicholas tolerated Uvarov's achievements until 1848, then reversed his innovations. Russia originated from the state of Kiev on the 9th century and was ruled for almost 1000 years by an autocratic regime. The serfs were freed in 1861, but the landowning aristocratic class kept control. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. and Mark D. Steinberg. In particular, they called into being a loyal and competent administration, and centralised the government. As a consequence, the vast majority of the inhabitants rarely felt the heavy hand of the state, which limited its own authority to the maintenance of order and the collection of taxes. The empire had a predominantly agricultural economy, with low productivity on large estates worked by Russian peasants, known as serfs, who were tied to the land in a feudal arrangement. The military of the Russian Empire consisted of the Imperial Russian Army and the Imperial Russian Navy. That the Duma had any radical elements was mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns — Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Kyiv, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Łódź. Conservatism was the reigning ideology for most of the Russian leadership, albeit with some reformist activities from time to time. [28] Poland was punished by losing its distinctive political and judicial rights, with Russianization imposed on its schools and courts.[29]. [6] With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Steven Hoch, "Did Russia's Emancipated Serfs Really Pay Too Much for Too Little Land? The serfdom that had developed in Russia in the 16th century, and had become enshrined by law in 1649, was abolished in 1861. Learn more about the history and significance of the Russian Empire in this article. Slavs in Russia: from 1500 BC The steppes, which form a broad pathway into southern Russia from central Asia, have been occupied by nomads since distant prehistoric times. The Social Democrats differed from the SRs in that they believed a revolution must rely on urban workers, not the peasantry. Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed. Police spies were planted everywhere. The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases. Every year more than half the adult males (in some districts three-quarters of the men and one-third of the women) quit their homes and wandered throughout Russia in search of labor. Hundreds of thousands of move to cities to work in factories, but they typically retained their village connections. The parochial clergy had to be married when appointed, but if left widowers were not allowed to marry again; this rule continues to apply today. On 17 October 1905, the situation changed: the ruler voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly established by the Organic Law issued on 28 April 1906. [42] The Industrial Revolution began to show significant influence in Russia, but the country remained rural and poor. of self-government and numerous privileges in matters affecting education, police and the administration of local justice. In 1722, he turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians. Most rich families still depended on private tutors. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. 1877-78 - Russian-Turkish War sees Russia seize land from Ottoman Empire in the Caucasus and establish client states in the Balkans. All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. The ministries were as follows: The Most Holy Synod (established in 1721) was the supreme organ of government of the Orthodox Church in Russia. ", Neumann, Iver B. They found it in Michael Romanov, a young boyar (nobleman), who was elected tsar in 1613. The higher forms of education were reserved for a very small elite, with only a few hundred students at the universities by 1825 and 5500 in the secondary schools. The Imperial Standard of the Tsar, used from 1858 to 1917. In the course of its history, the Russian Empire of the second half of the 19th Century passed from a feudal socioeconomic foundation to one grounded in capitalism. Catherine the Great (1762-1796) Another ‘great’ Russian, Catherine was an admirer of Peter and continued his process of modernising Russia. During World War I, Russia briefly occupied a small part of East Prussia, then part of Germany; a significant portion of Austrian Galicia; and significant portions of Ottoman Armenia. "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 20:37. After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon, Alexander became known as the 'saviour of Europe'. From its initial creation until the 1905 Revolution, the Russian Empire was controlled by its tsar/emperor as an absolute monarch, under the system of tsarist autocracy. Many of the government and other major buildings were designed with Italianate influence. [50], The Tsarist system was overthrown in the February Revolution in 1917. ", Stephen R. Burant, "The January Uprising of 1863 in Poland: Sources of Disaffection and the Arenas of Revolt. The Bolsheviks declared “no annexations, no indemnities” and called on workers to accept their policies and demanded the end of the war. Plagued with logistical problems, outdated military equipment and incompetent Russian officers, Russi… Saint Petersburg gradually extended and consolidated its control over the Caucasus in the course of the 19th century at the expense of Persia through the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the respectively ensuing treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay,[53] as well as through the Caucasian War (1817–1864). Russian victories in these wars greatly expanded Peter’s empire, and the defeat of Sweden won Russia direct access to the Baltic Sea, a lifelong obsession of the Russian leader. This measure, which was endorsed by the third Duma in an act passed on 21 December 1908, is calculated to have far-reaching and profound effects on the rural economy of Russia. The Siberia Governorate was established in 1708 as part of the administrative reforms of Peter I. Between 1744 and 1867, the empire also controlled Russian America. The USSR, also known as the Soviet Union, was established in post-revolutionary Russia. [58], The Russian army built two major railway lines in Central Asia during the 1880s. The forests were sold, and the only prosperous landlords were those who exacted rack-rents for the land without which the peasants could not live upon their allotments. Peter I the Great (1672–1725) played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. The Russian Empire’s two major cities were Moscow and St. Petersburg, the latter was the new capital of the Empire, and was founded in 1703. Like all empires, it featured great diversity in terms of economies, ethnicities, languages, and religions. As a result, Pan-Slavists were left with a legacy of bitterness against Austria-Hungary and Germany for failing to back Russia. Lastly, it promulgated new laws, a function which theoretically gave it a power akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with fundamental laws. [35][36], Russia had much less difficulty in expanding to the south, including the conquest of Turkestan. Under Russia's revised Fundamental Law of 20 February 1906, the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; from this time the legislative power was exercised normally by the Emperor only in concert with the two chambers. "Rehabilitating Tsarism: The Imperial Russian State and Its Historians. ", Smith, Steve. Despite losing almost all recently consolidated territories in the first year of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Russia managed to bring an end to the war with highly favourable terms with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, including the official gains of what is now Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır Province. The central authorities and the imperial elite made most of the key decisions, but local elites set up a demand for rail linkages. She also removed the tax on beards, instituted by Peter the Great.[13]. Land must thus of necessity be rented from the landlords. [43] Economic conditions steadily improved after 1890 thanks to new crops such as sugar beets, and new access to railway transportation. [68][69], The former serfs became peasants, joining the millions of farmers who were already in the peasant status. The Transcaucasus Railway connected the city of Batum on the Black Sea and the oil center of Baku on the Caspian Sea. [76], The accession in 1801 of Alexander I (1801–1825) was widely welcomed as an opening to fresh liberal ideas from the European Enlightenment. [20], The liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother, Nicholas I (1825–1855), who at the beginning of his reign was confronted with an uprising. After the death of Empress Elizabeth, she came to power when she conducted a coup d'état against her unpopular husband. The Senate (Pravitelstvuyushchi Senat, i.e. Peter the Great founded the Russian Empire in 1721. Poland was divided in the 1790–1815 era, with much of its land and population being taken under Russian rule. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. Popular dissatisfaction usually turned against these favourites rather than the tsar himself, such as during the urban uprisings (1648–50) that led to the exile of Morozov, and the great peasant rebellion (1670–71) led by the Cossack Stenka Razin. The late 1820s were successful military years. The moderate groups were satisfied. Russian is a Slavic language of the Indo-European family.All Indo-European languages are descendants of a single prehistoric language, reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European, spoken sometime in the Neolithic era. [70], After the Emancipation reform, one quarter of peasants received allotments of only 1.2 hectares (2.9 acres) per male, and one-half less than 3.4 to 4.6 hectares (8.5 to 11.4 acres); the normal size of the allotment necessary for the subsistence of a family under the three-fields system is estimated at 11 to 17 hectares (28 to 42 acres). The principal ecclesiastical authority of the Russian Church that extended its jurisdiction over the entire territory of the Empire, including the ex-Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, was the Most Holy Synod, the civilian Over Procurator of the Holy Synod being one of the council of ministers with wide de facto powers in ecclesiastical matters. After regaining control of the country, a convention of leading Russians elected Michael Romanov to be the new Tsar. The Russian masses were so furious over the massacre that a general strike was declared demanding a democratic republic. To the East it had the Asiatic territories of the Empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. The Duma of the Empire or Imperial Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), which formed the Lower House of the Russian parliament, consisted (since the ukaz of 2 June 1907) of 442 members, elected by an exceedingly complicated process. [9] Nearly the entire population was devoted to agricultural estates. Thus, while the tsar's personal powers were limited in scope after 28 April 1906, it still remained formidable. The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reached 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants. Some of the tsar’s ostensible subjects, such as the inhabitants of Siberia and the Cossacks, lived in completely autonomous communities, only nominally under the authority of the tsar. [46], In 1903, at the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in London, the party split into two wings: the gradualist Mensheviks and the more radical Bolsheviks. The poor performance during the Crimean War, 1853–56, caused great soul-searching and proposals for reform. Kennard, Howard Percy, and Netta Peacock, eds. Under both empresses, Russia’s borders have expanded at the expense of the Ottoman empire, Poland-Lithuania (especially in the First Partition of Poland in 1772), and the Crimean Khanate. Although serfdom was abolished, since its abolition was achieved on terms unfavourable to the peasants, revolutionary tensions were not abated, despite Alexander II's intentions. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. In practice, however, the degree of control he could exercise over the empire was effectively limited by the size of the country, the inadequacy of the administration, and a generally nonmodern conception of politics. His attention then turned to the North. In 1905, a Council of Ministers (Sovyet Ministrov) was created, under a minister president, the first appearance of a prime minister in Russia. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. Baykov, Alexander. ancient coins of the Russian Empire found during archaeological excavations, using a metal detector, the front and back background is blurred with the bokeh effect - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War. The membership was manipulated as to secure an overwhelming majority of the wealthy (especially the landed classes) and also for the representatives of the Russian peoples at the expense of the subject nations. [14] She also ordered the public trial of Darya Nikolayevna Saltykova, a high nobleman, on charges of torture and murder of serfs. Nevertheless, his minister of education, Sergey Uvarov at the university level was able to promote more academic freedom for the faculty, who were under suspicion by reactionary church officials. There was an increase of wealth among the few, but along with this a general impoverishment of the mass of the people, and the peculiar institution of the mir—framed on the principle of the community of ownership and occupation of the land--, the effect was not conducive to the growth of individual effort. Modernization of government required much larger numbers, but that, in turn, required an educational system that could provide suitable training. "Russia as a great power, 1815–2007.". When Tsar Alexander II ascended the throne in 1855, desire for reform was widespread. [66][67], The household servants or dependents attached to the personal service were merely set free, while the landed peasants received their houses and orchards, and allotments of arable land. The planning and building of the railway network after 1860 had far-reaching effects on the economy, culture, and ordinary life of Russia. The rates were highest for the nobility (84 to 87 percent), merchants (over 75 percent), then the workers and peasants. 1905 map of Siberia. The judicial system of the Russian Empire, existed from the mid-19th century, was established by the "tsar emancipator" Alexander II, by the statute of 20 November 1864 (Sudebny Ustav). Only one-quarter of the peasants were farmers; the remainder were mere laborers. Russian Republic • October Revolution • Civil War(Red Army • White Guard • separatists • others). The Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on the ideological doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905, when a semi-constitutional monarchy was established. [79] For the rest of the century, the national government continued to focus on universities, and generally ignore elementary and secondary educational needs. The first mentioning of some community in the territory of what we now refer toas Russia came to be in the Fourth Century AD with the formation of the first tribal union of Eastern Slavs (Volhynians and Buzhans). These elected their delegates to the Duma directly, and though their votes were divided (on the basis of taxable property) in such a way as to give the advantage to wealth, each returned the same number of delegates. Russian Recognition of the United States, 1803. See for these periods of extraterritorial control the empire of Japan–Russian Empire relations. The Russian republic was established immediately after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and became a union republic in 1922. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West. It was the supreme court of cassation; an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offences; one of its departments fulfilled the functions of a heralds' college. While the emperor retained many of his old prerogatives, including an absolute veto over all legislation, he equally agreed to the establishment of an elected parliament, without whose consent no laws were to be enacted in Russia. From 1875 to 1877, the Balkan crisis intensified with rebellions against Ottoman rule by various Slavic nationalities, which the Ottoman Turks dominated since the 16th century. ", Olga E. Maiorova, "War as Peace: The Trope of War in Russian Nationalist Discourse during the Polish Uprising of 1863.". Instead of imposing the traditional punishment of drawing and quartering, Catherine issued secret instructions that the executioners should carry the death sentences quickly and with a minimum of suffering, as part of her effort to introduce compassion into the law. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée reached Moscow, the Russians' scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. This opened up East Asia, and Russian interests focused on Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea. Although Moscow fell economically behind its rival, St. Petersburg, it continued to retain its major role in the cultural life of Russia during the 18 th century. Mironovassesses the effects of the reforms of latter 19th-century especially in terms of the 1861 eman… Local nobles, merchants, and entrepreneurs imagined the future from "locality" to "empire" to promote their regional interests. Textbooks were strictly regulated by the government. Now, in the 19th century, important consolidations are made to the south of this vast region. In this it differed from contemporary colonial-style empires. The Mensheviks believed that the Russian working class was insufficiently developed and that socialism could be achieved only after a period of bourgeois democratic rule. Opposition to Germany and Austria tried to suppress Serbian nationalism, and was ruled for almost 1000 by. Path was advocated by Slavophiles, who was made the ruler of Novgorod contributed to the new.. Was about one-eighth of the government was desperate. [ 22 ] '' had given place a! Setting up a national system of education was set up elite boarding schools until their was! The tax on beards, instituted by Peter the Great 's program of modernization Serfdom, emancipation, opened. Scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country remained rural and poor was... 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